Exploring the Wonderful World of Dogs
Prior to 1800 the generic name 'Fox Terrier' was given to any Terrier that was used to bolt foxes out of their burrows, particularly associated with the sport of Fox Hunting. Those which remained working Terriers whose ground colour was white were later developed into two separate breeds with differing leg length - the Jack Russell Terrier and the Parson Russell Terrier, both named after one man, the Parson Jack Russell. Meanwhile the name Fox Terrier became one of the first show dogs. In 1913 Fox Terriers were split into two separate pure-breeds separated by coat type - the Fox Terrier (Smooth) and the Fox Terrier (Wire).
Classes for Fox Terriers of the old fashioned type like those of the Reverand Parson John (Jack) Russell were held at Shows from 1863 and their pedigress recorded in the First English Stud Book published in 1874. At that time dogs' names were based on show entries. The Reverend Jack (John) Russell was on the first board of the Kennel Club (UK) and one of the first Kennel Club judges despite his own dogs being specialized Fox Hunters rather than show dogs. At this time coats on both the show Fox Terriers and Jack Russell's Terriers ranged from smooth through to the rough we see on Jack Russell to this day.
By 1900 Fox Terriers had become pure show dogs, and bred quite separately from the Reverend Jack Russell's working terriers. As a show dog, a winning Fox Terrier could be worth more than a hunting man or farmer could earn in a whole year. As Fox Terriers became show dogs, they were protected from the possibility of disfigurement that working terriers were exposed to. Then in 1913 the Wire Fox Terrier Club of England was formed and Fox Terrier gene pool was split into the two separately recorded registries we know today, the Fox Terrier (Smooth) and the Fox Terrier (Wire).
Today, a relic of the Fox Terrier's history is written into its breed standard where it is described like the horses called hunters with which it used to work. The General Appearance of the Fox Terrier breed standard says they should
' stand like a well made, short backed hunter, covering a lot of ground'
Having been a show dog for more than a century, breeders and judges alike have selected for exaggeration. The modern Fox Terrier has an extremely short back compared to his ancestors and his head and neck have also become much longer.
Opinions vary as to whether the Fox Terrier (Smooth) and the Fox Terrier (Wire) are two varieties of the same breed or are two separate breeds. Whilst in both breeds an elongated head is sought, a flat skull topped off with button ears set high on the skull, combined with the long strong foreface make the Fox Terrier head very distinctive. They should move at a trot with balanced reach and drive. Both mention a weight of 18 pounds, but only the Wire mentions a height of not exceeding 35 cm (15 and a half inches).
The major difference between these two is the coat. Whilst the Smooth is smooth coated, the Wire has a broken coat and so has made him outwardly appear similar to the Welsh and Lakeland Terriers. Permissible colours are similar, the Fox Terrier being a white dog with tan, black or tri-colour markings. But differences between the Fox Terrier (Smooth) and Fox Terrier (Wire) can be observed by diligent students and enthusiasts.
While the Fox Terriers were show dogs, although a founding member of the Board of the first Kennel Club (UK) and a terrier judge, the Reverend Jack (John) Russell became more famous for his working terriers that bear his name to this day. His dogs came in varying leg lengths. The longer legged terriers ran with the hound packs and therefore had longer legs. The shorter legged terriers were carried to the fox dens by the hunter or a terrier man whose jacket had pockets large enough to carry these small terriers.
The Reverend kept his own records of his dogs. These were not recorded in the Stud Books of the Kennel Club (UK). So, Jack Russell Terriers were therefore never technically pure-breed dogs. The gene pool was never split by either leg length or coat type. Terriers that would do the required job were simply selected as puppies and trained as required. The following is a quote from Hugh Dalziel's 'British Dogs' 
The Rev. J. Russell, who is certainly the father of fox terrier breeders, tells us that he has bred his dogs since 1815, and their pedigree has been kept quite pure, except that he once admitted an admixture of old Jock, a high compliment to the old dog.
During his lifetime, the Reverend John (Jack) Russell witnessed the gene pool of his original working Fox Terriers split from the show Fox Terrier. But it is indisputable that his respected old fashioned working type of terrier bearing his name has remained until this day. The words of his obituary in the Kennel Club Gazette of May 1883 said of him:
"As the oldest Fox Terrier breeder in England, Mr Russell's connection with the Kennel Club was an honour to that body"
The Reverend Jack Russell began his lifetime passion with Fox Terriers in 1815 with a bitch called 'Trump'. T.H.Scott wrote in the 'Sportsman's Repository' in 1820 that there were other Fox Terriers at that time that were as perfect point for point as 'Trump' who laid the foundation for the Reverend's strain of working Fox Terriers. The Reverend succeeded in developing a terrier that had legs of sufficient length to hunt with his hounds, yet had a chest so small and flexible it was able to wriggle along and squeeze through the incredibly small earths or tunnels where the fox lived. For this reason, to this day the chest of a Jack Russell Terrier should be sufficiently small that its girth behind the elbows is capable of being spanned by average sized hands. This practice is called spanning a terrier.
Whilst Fox Terriers had been pure-breeds for more than a century, Jack Russell Terriers continued working with the hound packs of England, bolting foxes. But towards the end of the 1900's, there was a movement against fox hunting as a sport. So Jack Russell Terrier enthusiasts began looking to develop these wonderful little working Terriers as a separate recognized pure breed.
When the famous Australian equestrians, Bill and Mavis Roycroft visited England in 1964 and fell in love with the Jack Russell Terriers that were assigned to Hunt Clubs in the UK. They brought a dog and two bitches back to Australia and from there, Australia developed the Jack Russell Terrier. The Jack Russell Club of Australia was subsequently formed in 1972 to record of their pedigrees. On January 1st 1991, the ANKC recognized the Jack Russell Terrier as a pure breed in Australia with a height of 10" - 12" (inches).
Meanwhile in England, the 'old type' Fox Terriers continued to be bred from the Reverend John (Jack) Russells' working lines selected for brains and a sound constitution. Although a Parson Jack Russell Terrier Club has existed in England right through the 1900's, a breed standard written and even a class for 'Working Fox Terriers' provided at Crufts, the Parson (Jack) Russell Terrier was not separately recognized by the Kennel Club (UK) until 1990. Firstly it was called the Parson Russell Terrier and later the name was changed to the Parson Jack Russell Terrier. It differs from the Australian Jack Russell in that its ideal height is 14" for dogs and 13" for bitches.
Both the Jack Russell's and the Parson's working background is acknowledged in their respective breed standards with the requirement for them to be spanned. This process is called spanning a terrier.
Whilst the flat skull has been retained from its Fox Terrier background, the ears of both the Jack Russell and the Parson are lower set than the Fox Terrier and must not be carried above the level of the skull. Rather the ears should be carried somewhere between that of a button ear and a side placement ear. Additionally, neither the Jack Russell nor the Parson should have the elongated head so admired in the Fox Terrier. Instead, in order to be assured of retaining the strength of muzzle for working purposes, the foreface is required to be no longer than the length of the skull, with more stop between the skull and the foreface than its Fox Terrier predecessor.
It is also interesting to note that although the height has split the original type of terriers kept by the Reverend John (Jack) Russell into the two separate breeds of the Jack Russell Terrier and Parson Russell Terrier, the coat type has been retained in its original form which ranges from smooth through to rough hair and all the coat types in between.
So historically the Jack Russell and the Parson are the same breed with their Breed Standards written by different groups of enthusiasts in different countries. Today, the only actual difference is leg length.
Our DVD 'Terriers Then & Now' contains more about the Fox Terrier (Smooth and Wire), the Jack Russell and the Parson Russell Terriers
 William C. Kinsman (Secretary ANKC) “Jack Russell Terrier approved by the ANKC" Editorial in the KCC Kennel Gazette Vol 56 November No 11 Page 1
 Hugh Dalziel "British Dogs: Their Varieties, History, Characteristics, Breeding, Management, and Exhibition" (“The Bazaar”, London) 1879-1880 Chapter XVIII Page 304
 R Makeef "Parson Russell's Terrier A short history of the origin of the breed in 1825 and the foundation of the Club in 1895" (VCA Gazette 1993 Vol 59 No 5 Page 21)
Also published in 2012- Jane Harvey, "Fox Terrier and Jack Russells" in Lets Talk Terriers (Tracy Murphy, Dean Park NSW) Vol 8 No 2 2011 Pages 16 -18