Dog Head Components
Dogs' heads have 5 different components each of which can vary considerably. Some variations of the components of dogs' heads are distinctive whilst others are quite subtle. So it is imperative to understand the different components that make up the head before we can discuss these variations. After all, the dog's head sets the breed type of each particular pure breed of dog.
A Dog's Head
This section is divided between 5 different components of the head which are
- Occipital Bone
- Foreface or Muzzle
- The skin covering the head.
The general term 'skull' when used in dog jargon usually means the brain case or the area surrounding the brain. The skull actually consists of several different bones which are fused. The shape of the skull is particularly important as this shape affects both the set of the ears and the eyes and hence the expression.
The skull ends at the stop. This area called the 'stop' begins where the brows or frontal bones (technically called the supercilary arches) surround the eyes, and ends at the muzzle. So the 'stop' is this indented area between the eyes rather than a single point.
This indented area between the eyes is clearly shown on the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier on the left. It is also shown on the diagram on the right. This area should not be included when assessing head proportions in skull to muzzle ratios.
The occipital bone has a crest or protuberance which is commonly referred to as the occiput. It is is clearly seen here in the English Setter and Bloodhound. However, in some other breeds it is barely perceptible. Myths in dog folklore believed that size of the occiputal protuberance was a measure of the dog's sense of smell. So to this day it is prominent in most Scent Hounds.
But the occipital bone itself actually extends right down the back of the head to where it articulates with the neck. So when breed standards refer to the length of a dog's skull, this measurement does not include the occiput as this is part of the occipital bone.
Foreface or Muzzle
The foreface or muzzle is the whole of the upper area from the eyes to the nose including the lips. It is sometimes also referred to as the face.
The boney part on the top of the muzzle is often called the nazal bridge whereas the sides of the muzzle are often referred to as flews in Breed Standards and general dog jargon. Some Breed Standards refer to the flews as muzzle. So, confusion could arise as to what are flews and what exactly is the muzzle. For example, the Breed Standard of the Cocker Spaniel shown here says it should have a square muzzle, whereby it is obvious that it is the flews that are square shaped.
When the muzzle or flews look thick or padded, this is called cushioning - for example the Tibetan Spaniel shown here. This cushioning gives the dog a soft expression.
Technically the lower lips are that potion of the skin closest to the mouth cavilty that is devoid of hair. The lower lips blend into the skin of the chin while upper lips blend into the skin that covers the top teeth.
Variations in the Skin covering the Head
When the supple skin of the head is loose, the lower eyelid can droop or sag so the eye rim does not hug the eye. The red pouch which then becomes clearly visible is called haw. This is often seen in a breed with excessive head skin like the Basset Hound (pictured) or the Bloodhound.
The skin of a Chow Chow's head wrinkles or contracts giving the expression is referred to as a 'scowl'. The dictionary describes a scowl as this wrinkling or contracting the brow giving an expression of anger or disapproval. In the Chow Chow, the slightly tilted, small rounded ear also adds to this scowling expression.
References and Further Reading
Harold R Spira “Canine Terminology” Harper & Row Sydney 1982 Page 88